Fault Juxtaposition Plots explained

How do we know if the fault leaks or seals? And what the Fault Juxtaposition Plot is? This animation might be helpful in understanding this.


Mine's pollution pathways

Illustration for a book. Book not mine, but about mine water :))


Lake Wells Sulphate of Potash Project

Geological evolution of Lake Wells (West Australia) paleochannel. More about:



One of the most common minerals on Earth - pyroxenes. More about illustrations here:


Witwatersrand gold deposition environments illustrated

Illustrations of Mesoarchaean-Neoarchaean environments within which the Witwatersrand-type gold deposits formed. Read more about what they show and what is the study behind them:


Landscape 37°09'35"N 109°49'20"W

This landscape is based on real satellite and elevation data. Approximate middle point of this area has the coordinates of 37°09'35"N 109°49'20"W. I won't tell you more of where this area is, you can check it yourself =)


Artificial landscape

This landscape is made by using the procedural texture. Its sister landscape based on the same texture but slightly different parameters is there:




Beryl wheel! Beryl mineral has varieties of the whole color spectrum. Those varieties can be nicely plotted on what is called color wheel. Then, I guess, we get beryl wheel!

High resolution digital and paper posters there:


Geology of West Lithuania

Short animation I did. A little piece of the Baltic sedimentary basin geology from west Lithuania.

Read more there:


Modelled minerals

None of these images are photos! Every mineral is modelled, every image is rendered.

Check more illustrations there!



Garnet minerals are great group of silicate minerals with general chemical formula X3Y2Si3O12. X stands for divalent Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn cations and Y – for trivalent Al, Fe and Cr cations. There are two main groups of garnet minerals. One group is Uvarovite (Ca3Cr2Si3O12) – Grossular (Ca3Al2Si3O12) – Andradite (Ca3Fe2Si3O12) group. This group is called Ugrandite (based on the beginnings of garnet minerals names within this group). This group has calcium in X position and chromium, aluminum or iron in Y position. Uvarovite, Grossular and Andradite are end members of this group, but mixed compositions (example: Ca3(Al, Fe)Si3O12) are also common.

Another group: Pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) – Almandine (Fe3Al2Si3O12) – Spessartine (Mn3Al2Si3O12).  This group is called Pyralspite group. This group has aluminum in Y position and magnesium, iron or manganese in X position. All these three minerals can also blend with each other and form mixed minerals. Also, minerals of this group can blend to Grossular through calcium – magnesium, iron or manganese cations exchange. (Read more about illustration:

High resolution poster there:


Porosity vs Saturation

100 % oil saturated core is not always that great!

All cores in each row have the same oil saturation but different porosity. Therefore, the total amount of oil differs a lot in each core.

This picture illustrates the very basics of Porosity vs Saturation. It does not discuss bulk or effective porosity, pore size, vugs, fractures, connected or isolated pores, more than one fluid, different phases, etc.

Higher resolution digital and paper posters there:


K2 from map to mountain

A bit of fun playing with real elevation data and combining textures. Animation made in Blender with Evee, but I needed a lot of World Machine help, a bit of Substance Painter and Designer and of course mapping software, in this case Surfer.



Feldspars are one of the most common minerals on Earth. There are two solid solution series of feldspar minerals: alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. The end members of these solid solutions are potassium feldspar (orthoclase, microcline) (KAlSi3O8) – albite (NaAlSi3O8) – anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8). So, the alkali felspars range from orthoclase and microcline to albite. Accordingly, chemical formula of these minerals ranges from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8 (because of K-Na substitution). And plagioclase feldspars range from albite to anorthite, so from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8 (because of NaSi-CaAl substitution). Intermediate blended minerals are present for both sequences. (Read more about illustration:

High resolution poster available there:


Blue Desert

This is why procedural environments should be loved! This desert is done on the base of the Green Mountain (posted below) node setup in World Machine. Offset area, some differences in roughness and colors, Blender Cycles lighting – and you get totally different look.

If you want PBR maps of this environment for your project you can get them there:



Green Mountain

This one is done with World Machine and Geoglyph, details added with Substance Painter and all finished in Blender. With this one I wanted to get wet looking ground. Got this by combining roughness map with water level plane.


Transport Scheme

This transport scheme is just a fun housewarming gift to friends. There are many ways for two friend families to reach each other! From hour long walk with a dog to minute flight with helicopter if urgent 😊 Map is based on real data.




Made with Geoglyph in World Machine and Blender. Base – elevation, erosion textures and coloring done in World Machine. I used Blender only for final image to get better lighting controls.

Color, elevation and normal PBR maps are shown at the lower picture. If you want these maps for your project you can get them there:



QAPF, Gabbroic and Ultramafic Rock Classification Schemes

The idea with these pictures was to color them by using the colors (most common) of each corner mineral and blend these colors as the percentage of mineral changes. QAPF diagram represents only the normalized felsic (light colored minerals) part of the rock, so for this illustration I avoided adding mafic (dark colored) minerals. But after posting it on few social platforms, I realized that people naturally miss mafic minerals when they see granite, diorite or any other, especially gabbro. Similar situation with other schemes I posted there: I have some ideas how to improve them. So, if you plan to copy these schemes and use them, either wait until I post improved versions or make sure you really understand why they are colored this way 😊


Formation Depth, Thickness and Cross Section Example

The task of this project was to show the thicknesses of two layers (the thickness maps not shown here). I called them Formation1 and Formation2 in this adapted public version. The data based on which it needed to be done was well logs (again, not all logs shown) and 3D seismic based depth map. The cross section with one of the depth maps is shown here. The same data, and more, is shown in 3D view. The top surface is cut so that the data below would be visible.



Sedimentation, Flexuring and Faulting

This one was done when I needed simply but clearly illustrate the sequence of geological events within a certain area.



Water Pollution Plume

The task with this project was simple: create geological cross sections, interpolate polluted groundwater flux data and visualize it. I received the lithology and pollution concentration data of few wells. There were few pollutants each of which had to be interpolated and visualized.

For this picture I used the results of the study but made some adaptations and give no identification of the exact pollutant so that the data stays confident. The pollutant plume model is cut, and the outermost zero concentration surface and satellite map is cut as well so that the inner iso-concentration surfaces would be better visible.


Geological 3D Model from Paper Map

So I decided to check how easy or difficult it is to use Global Mapper and Surfer to create 3D model from paper data. And I needed that paper map. Found something in my old papers. I am not even sure where is it from but it suited well for my purpose.